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Beware of Sleep Disorders

We sleep approximately 8h of each 24-h cycle, that is 1/3rd of our life, But sleep disorders are often neglected by patients and doctors compared to other medical illness, because

  • Patients are often keeping the problem of sleep as a personal and private issue.
  • They may be unaware of sleep disorder causing their abnormal movements at night, or of obstructive sleep apneas.
  • Sleep-related symptoms are often attributed to be normal in life.
  • ‘Tiredness’, may be thought to be due to old age, stress, shift work or overwork, rather than to a sleep disorder.
  • Medical and other healthcare professionals are generally less aware of sleep.
  • Doctors examine while the patient is awake so that direct observation of a sleep disorder by the doctor is unusual.
  • Medical schools do not give importance to sleep disorders, because sleep medicine is a new science

Classifications

Classification of sleep disorders: ICSD-2

There are eight main types of sleep disorders. Each type has sub-types as well.

  1. Insomnia
  2. Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders
  3. Hypersomnias of Central Origin
  4. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders
  5. Parasomnias
  6. Sleep-Related Movement Disorders
  7. Isolated Symptoms, Apparently Normal Variants, and Unresolved Issues
  8. Other Sleep Disorder

Insomnia

Sub-types of Insomnia
  • Adjustment Insomnia (Acute Insomnia)
  • Psychophysiological Insomnia
  • Paradoxical Insomnia
  • Idiopathic Insomnia
  • Insomnia Due to Mental Disorder
  • Inadequate Sleep Hygiene
  • Behavioral Insomnia of Childhood
  • Insomnia Due to Drug or Substance
  • Insomnia Due to Medical Condition
  • Insomnia Not Due to Substance or Known Physiological Condition
  • Unspecified (Nonorganic Insomnia, NOS)
  • Physiological (Organic) Insomnia, Unspecified
Sub-types of Sleep related breathing disorders
  • Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes
    • Primary Central Sleep Apnea
    • Central Sleep Apnea Due to Cheyne Stokes Breathing Pattern
    • Central Sleep Apnea Due to High-Altitude Periodic Breathing
    • Central Sleep Apnea Due to Medical Condition Not Cheyne Stokes
    • Central Sleep Apnea Due to Drug or Substance
    • Primary Sleep Apnea of Infancy (Formerly Primary Sleep Apnea of Newborn)
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndromes
    • Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Adult
    • Obstructive Sleep Apnoea, Pediatric
  • Sleep Related Hypoventilation/Hypoxemic Syndromes
    • Sleep Related Nonobstructive Alveolar Hypoventilation, Idiopathic
    • Congenital Central Alveolar Hypoventilation Syndrome
  • Sleep Related Hypoventilation/Hypoxemia Due to Medical Condition
    • Sleep Related Hypoventilation/Hypoxemia Due to Pulmonary Parenchymal or Vascular Pathology
    • Sleep Related Hypoventilation/Hypoxemia Due to Lower Airways Obstruction
    • Sleep Related Hypoventilation/Hypoxemia Due to Neuromuscular and Chest Wall Disorders
  • Other Sleep Related Breathing Disorder
    • Sleep Apnea/Sleep Related Breathing Disorder, Unspecified
Sub-types of Hypersomnia
  • Narcolepsy With Cataplexy
  • Narcolepsy Without Cataplexy
  • Narcolepsy Due to Medical Condition
  • Narcolepsy, Unspecified
  • Recurrent Hypersomnia
    • Kleine-Levin Syndrome
    • Menstrual-Related Hypersomnia
  • Idiopathic Hypersomnia With Long Sleep Time
  • Idiopathic Hypersomnia Without Long Sleep Time
  • Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome
  • Hypersomnia Due to Medical Condition
  • Hypersomnia Due to Drug or Substance
  • Hypersomnia Not Due to Substance or Known Physiological Condition (Nonorganic Hypersomnia, NOS)
  • Physiological (Organic) Hypersomnia, Unspecified (Organic Hypersomnia, NOS)
Sub-types of Circadian Disorders
  • Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Delayed Sleep Phase Type (Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder)
  • Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Advanced Sleep Phase Type (Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder)
  • Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Irregular Sleep-Wake Type (Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm)
  • Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Free-Running Type (Nonentrained Type)
  • Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Jet Lag Type (Jet Lag Disorder)
  • Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Shift Work Type (Shift Work Disorder)
  • Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder Due to Medical Condition
  • Other Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder (Circadian Rhythm Disorder, NOS)
  • Other Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder Due to Drug or Substance
Sub-types of Parasomnias
  • Disorders of Arousal (From NREM Sleep)
    • Confusional Arousals
    • Sleepwalking
    • Sleep Terrors
  • Parasomnias Usually Associated With REM Sleep
    • REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (Including Overlap Disorder and Status Dissociatus)
    • Recurrent Isolated Sleep Paralysis
    • Nightmare Disorder
  • Other Parasomnias
    • Sleep-Related Dissociative Disorders
    • Sleep Enuresis
    • Sleep-Related Groaning (Catathrenia)
    • Exploding Head Syndrome
    • Sleep-Related
      Hallucinations
    • Sleep-Related Eating Disorders
    • Parasomnia, Unspecified
    • Parasomnia Due to Drug or Substance
    • Parasomnia Due to Medical Condition
Sub-types of sleep related movement disorders
  • Restless Legs Syndrome
  • Periodic Limb Movement Disorder
  • Sleep-Related Leg Cramps
  • Sleep-Related Bruxism
  • Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder
  • Sleep-Related Movement Disorder, Unspecified
  • Sleep-Related Movement Disorder Due to Drug or Substance
  • Sleep-Related Movement Disorder Due to Medical Condition
Sub-types of isolated sleep disorders
  • Long Sleeper
  • Short Sleeper
  • Snoring
  • Sleep Talking
  • Sleep Starts (Hypnic Jerks)
  • Benign Sleep Myoclonus of Infancy
  • Hypnagogic Foot Tremor and Alternating Leg Muscle Activation During Sleep
  • Propriospinal Myoclonus at Sleep Onset
  • Excessive Fragmentary Myoclonus
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